1- the usual excuse trotted out and the contrite reply is usually "why is it my problem America doesn't have a minimum wage"? To which I have still to hear a good argument. Why can't waiting staff be as active as they are when bleating on about under tipping and campaign for a better salary?
But my preferred response is "so because you preferred to not bunk off school, have fun and not get an education, you now expect me to subsidise your life? How about go back to night school, get some qualifications and a better paid job?
2- Wrong. I do not offer my barman, bus conductor, shopkeeper, MP, mechanic, lollipop lady, teacher, vicar (should I use one), electrician, nurse, doctor- do I really need to go on- a 12% gratuity or any other kind of tip, simply for doing their job.
I tip for exemplary service and that does not include knowing my name, wishing me a "good day" or hovering around waiting to fill my water glass. Now if that person tries to speak in English with me in a foreign land, that will always obtain a suitable stipend as I am immensely grateful but to carry my bag up in a lift and drop it into my room, when I have been lugging it from the airport and have it on my back? Nope.
And notice the key word here, "optional". Has the author forgotten its meaning?
3- No, I eat out and make a deal with the establishment. How they run their restaurant is none of my concern in the least. I check the menu to see if cost of food is fair and if I approve, I will dine there. If I deem it unreasonable, I'll be going elsewhere. But I expect good service as the norm as this is what the restaurant pays its staff for. If they don't like it, see #1 above.
Plenty more in this but too bored now. Check the readers' comments at the end, the majority are also getting sick to death of these hidden taxes.