Mata Hari was the stage-name for Dutch-born Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, an exotic dancer and high class prostitute in Paris. Through her line of work, Mata Hari mixed with the upper class and became a courtesan to many high-ranking military men and politicians, putting her in a very good position to gather information and pass it to the Germans during the First World War.
In January, 1917, the German Military Attache in Madrid sent an encoded radio signal to Berlin, stating that they were receiving excellent information from a German spy codenamed H-21. French intelligence intercepted the messages and were able to identify H-21 as Mata Hari. On February 13, 1917, Mata Hari was arrested in her Paris hotel room. She was subsequently tried for espionage and found guilty. She was executed by Firing Squad on the 15th of September, 1917 at the age of 41.
The Cambridge Five
The Cambridge Five was a ring of spies in the UK who passed information to the Soviet Union during the Second World War, and at least into the early 1950s. It has been suggested they may also have passed Soviet disinformation to the Nazis. Four members of the ring have been conclusively identified: Kim Philby (cryptonym: Stanley), Donald Duart Maclean (cryptonym: Homer), Guy Burgess (cryptonym: Hicks) and Anthony Blunt (cryptonym: Johnson); together they are known as the Cambridge Four. Several people have been suspected of being the "fifth man", but John Cairncross (cryptonym: Liszt) was identified by Oleg Gordievsky.
Several others beyond these five have also been accused of being members. Their name refers to the fact that all members became committed Communists while attending Cambridge University in the 1930s.
Ames is a former CIA Counter-intelligence Officer who was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union in 1994. On his first assignment as a case officer, he was stationed in Ankara, Turkey, where his job was to target Soviet intelligence officers for recruitment. Due to financial problems, Ames began spying for the Soviet Union in 1985, when he walked into the Soviet Embassy in Washington to offer secrets for money. The information he supplied to the Soviets lead to the compromise of at least 100 CIA agents and to the execution of at least 10. Ames used the money to live well beyond his means as a CIA agent.
In early 1985, the CIA began to notice that they were losing their "assets" at a very rapid rate. For unknown reasons they were not willing, in the early stages, to believe that they had been infiltrated by the KGB, instead presuming the leak to be via bugging devices. When the FBI were finally brought in to investigate, Ames became the primary suspect. Fearing he would defect on a CIA trip to Russia, The FBI arrested him at the airport with his wife. He was given a life sentence and is incarcerated in the US Penitentiary in Allenwood, Pennsylvania.
Klaus FuchsFuchs was a German-born theoretical physicist who worked in Los Alamos on the atom bomb project. He was responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first fission weapons and early models of the hydrogen bomb. Whilst attending university in Germany, Fuchs became involved with the Communist Party of Germany. After a run-in with the newly installed Nazi government, he fled to England where he earned his PhD in physics. For a short time he worked on the British atomic bomb project.
It was while he was working for the British that he began to give information to the Soviets. He reasoned that they had the right to know what the British and the Americans were developing. In 1943 he was transferred to the United States to assist on the Manhattan project. From 1944 he worked in New Mexico at Los Alamos.
For two years he gave his KGB contacts theoretical plans for building a hydrogen bomb. He also provided key data on the production of uranium 235, allowing the Soviets to determine the number of bombs possessed by the United States. On his return to the United Kingdom in 1946, he was interrogated as a result of the cracking of some Soviet ciphers. He was tried and sentenced to fourteen years in prison, the maximum term under British law for passing military secrets to a friendly nation. He was released after nine years and immediately moved to Germany where he lived out the remainder of his life.
Isabella Marie Boyd, known as Cleopatra of the Secession, was a Confederate spy in the American Civil War. She operated from her father's hotel in Virginia and provided valuable information to Confederate general Stonewall Jackson in 1862.
Her espionage career began by chance when a band of Union army soldiers saw the Confederate flag hung outside her home. They tore it down and hung a Union flag in its place. Belle retaliated, shooting one of the men. As punishment, sentries were posted around her house and officers kept close track of her activities. She profited from this enforced familiarity, charming at least one of the officers, Captain Daniel Keily, into revealing military secrets. Belle conveyed those secrets to Confederate officers via her slave, Eliza Hopewell, who carried the messages in a hollowed-out watch case. At one point, she eavesdropped when Union General James Shields and his staff who were gathered in the parlour of the local hotel. She learned that Shields had been ordered east from Front Royal, Virginia, a move that would reduce the Union Army's strength at Front Royal. That night, Belle rode through Union lines, using false papers to bluff her way past the sentries, and reported the news to Col. Turner Ashby, who was scouting for the Confederates. For her contributions, she was awarded the Southern Cross of Honor. Jackson also gave her captain and honorary aide-de-camp positions. But she was betrayed by her lover, and arrested in 1862. She was later freed and moved to England.After the war, Belle Boyd became an actress in England before returning to the United States in 1869. She died of a heart attack at the age of 56.